What is in the interest of one person or group may conflict with what is in the interest of another. Some agreed procedure for balancing such conflicting interests is needed. Similarly, international agreements are necessary where events in one country may affect another country.
One of the key values in science is openness. Scientific work is published so that others can see it, check it and make use of it. But sometimes there can be conflict when people wish to keep new knowledge secret in order to protect the interests of those discovering or funding it.
Should individuals, businesses or even countries be allowed to prevent others from using their technology. What if it's needed desperately? What if the technology owner has invested a lot of money and time in developing the technology? Should that affect their right to control how it is used and by whom?